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XYZ Arms Robots

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X-Y-Z folding three-axis mechanical arm system is rectangular coordinate robot, or XYZ Arms Robots. You are welcome to visit our download centre to check E-catalogues or watch our video centre to check more projects.

A. Application of X-Y-Z rectangular coordinate robot(XYZ Arms Robots):
The mechanical arm driven by ball screw or synchronous belt (excluding Z-axis) is used for combination, and the folding turntable is added, so that the mechanical arm can be folded into a horizontal arrangement.
The scope of work is XYZ three-dimensional space, which is suitable for moving, and tracking objects in three-dimensional space. Folding can make the structure more compact and save space.

B. Configuration of X-Y-Z architecture rectangular coordinate robot(XYZ Arms Robots):
X-axis: Ball screw, synchronous belt or rack and pinion driven mechanical arm can be used.
Y-axis: ball screw, synchronous belt or rack and pinion driven mechanical arm can be used.
Z-axis: Ball screw or rack and pinion driven mechanical arm can be used.
⑴ What are the characteristics of industrial robots according to their coordinate types
There are many sources and varieties of the robot structure. The most common structure is described by its coordinate characteristics. These coordinate structures include Cartesian coordinate structure, cylindrical coordinate structure, polar coordinate structure, spherical coordinate structure and articulated structure.

Cylindrical coordinate robot: mainly composed of vertical columns, horizontal moving joints and bases. The horizontal movement joint is mounted on the vertical column, which can be freely retracted and can move up and down along the vertical column. The vertical column is installed on the base and rotates around the base together with the horizontal movement joint. The workspace of this robot forms a cylindrical surface.

Spherical coordinate robot: This robot is like the turret of a tank. The manipulator can perform inside out telescopic movement, swing in the vertical plane and rotate around the base in the horizontal plane. Therefore, the workspace of this robot forms a part of the sphere, which is called spherical coordinate robot.

Articulated robot: This robot is mainly composed of a base, a big arm and a small arm. The boom and jib can move in a vertical plane through the base. The joint between the upper arm and the lower arm is called the elbow joint, and the joint between the upper arm and the base is called the shoulder joint. The rotation movement on the horizontal plane can be completed by the shoulder joint or by rotating around the base. This kind of robot is very similar to human arm and is called articulated robot.
(2) What are the characteristics of industrial robots according to the types of coordinates.
(1) Advantages: The manipulator has simple structure, strong intuitive movement and is convenient for achieving high precision.
(2) Disadvantages: It occupies a large space, and the corresponding working range is small.
Cylindrical coordinate type
(1) Advantages: Compared with the rectangular coordinate manipulator, the cylindrical coordinate manipulator has the advantages of small space occupation, compact structure and large working range, in addition to keeping the movement intuitive.
(2) Disadvantages: Limited by the lifting mechanism, it is generally impossible to lift the workpiece on the ground or at a lower position.
Spherical coordinate type
(1) Advantages: Compared with the cylindrical coordinate manipulator, this manipulator occupies the same space, and its working range is expanded. Because it has pitch freedom, it can extend the arm to the ground to complete the task of extracting workpiece from the ground.
(2) Disadvantages: poor visual movement, complex structure, and the position error of the arm end will be amplified with the extension of the arm.
Articular type
(1) Advantages: The articulated manipulator has some characteristics of the human arm. Compared with other types of manipulators, it occupies the smallest space and has the largest working range. In addition, it can bypass obstacles to extract and transport workpieces. Therefore, in recent years, it has received widespread attention.
(2) Disadvantages: the motion is less intuitive, and the drive control is more complex.
C. Coordinate system of each joint of manipulator

The most prominent features of industrial robots(XYZ Arms Robots) are as follows:

  1. Programmable. The further development of production automation is flexible startup. The industrial robot can be reprogrammed according to the needs of its working environment changes, so it can play a good role in the small batch and multi variety flexible manufacturing process with balanced and high efficiency, and is an important part of the flexible manufacturing system.
  2. Personification. The mechanical structure of industrial robots is similar to human walking, waist turning, big arms, small arms, wrists, claws and other parts, and the control is provided with computers. In addition, intelligent industrial robots also have many “biosensors” similar to humans, such as skin contact sensors, force sensors, load sensors, visual sensors, acoustic sensors, language functions, etc. The sensor improves the adaptive ability of industrial robot to the surrounding environment.
  3. Versatility. In addition to specially designed industrial robots, general industrial robots have good versatility when performing different tasks. For example, replacing the end effector of the industrial robot hand (claw, tool, etc.) can perform different tasks.
  4. Industrial machine technology involves a wide range of disciplines, which can be summarized as the combination of mechanics and microelectronics – electromechanical integration technology. The third generation intelligent robot not only has a variety of sensors to obtain external environmental information, but also has the ability of memory, language understanding, image recognition, reasoning and judgment and other artificial intelligence, which are closely related to the application of microelectronic technology, especially the application of computer technology.
    (3) What do the four axes and six axes of the manipulator refer to? How many coordinates are needed to define a point
    Four axis manipulator and six axis articulated manipulator. Among them, the four axis manipulator is specially designed for high-speed retrieval operation, while the six axis manipulator provides higher production flexibility.

D. Four axis manipulator

Small assembly manipulator, “four axis manipulator” refers to “selective assembly joint manipulator”, that is, the arm part of the four axis manipulator can move freely in a geometric plane.

The first two joints of the manipulator can rotate freely on the horizontal plane. The third joint consists of a metal rod called quill and a gripper. The metal rod can move up and down in the vertical plane or rotate around its vertical axis, but cannot tilt.

This unique design makes the four axis manipulator very rigid, so that they can be competent for high-speed and highly repetitive work. In packaging applications, the four axis manipulator is good at high-speed picking and placing and other material processing tasks.


E. Six axis manipulator

The six axis manipulator has two more joints than the four axis manipulator, so it has more “freedom of action”.

The first joint of the six axis manipulator can rotate freely in the horizontal plane like the four axis manipulator, and the last two joints can move in the vertical plane. In addition, the six axis manipulator has one “arm” and two “wrist” joints, which makes it have the similar ability of human arm and wrist.

The six axis manipulator has more joints, which means that they can pick up the parts on the horizontal plane with any orientation and put them into the packaged products at a special angle. They can also perform many operations that can only be performed by skilled workers.

(5) In the world of industrial four-axis robot, when to use various coordinate systems, such as orthographic, tool, workpiece, user, joint, etc., and what is the relationship between them

The coordinate system is very important in the industrial four axis robot. We need to choose the corresponding coordinate system according to different situations to work.

F. The coordinate forms of industrial robots include rectangular coordinate, cylindrical coordinate, spherical coordinate, joint coordinate and planar joint.

1) Cartesian/Cartesian/Bench type

This robot is composed of three linear joints, which are used to determine the position of the end manipulator, and usually have additional moral rotation joints to determine the attitude of the end manipulator. The motion of the robot on the X, Y, Z axes is independent, the motion equation can be handled independently, and the equation is linear, so it is easy to be realized by computer; It can be supported at both ends. For a given structure length, its rigidity is maximum: its accuracy and position resolution do not change with the working situation, and it is easy to achieve high accuracy. However, its operating range is small. When the arm retracts, it stretches out in the opposite direction, which hinders the work. It also covers a large area, has low movement speed, and has poor sealing performance.

2) Cylindrical coordinate type

The cylindrical coordinate robot consists of two sliding joints and a rotation joint to determine the position of the component, and an additional rotation joint to determine the pose of the component. The robot can rotate an angle around the central axis, the working range can be expanded, and the calculation is simple; The linear part can be driven by hydraulic pressure, which can output greater power; It can reach into the cavity type machine. However, the space that its arm can reach is limited, and it cannot reach the space near the column or the ground; The linear drive is difficult to seal and prevent dust; When the rear arm works, the rear end of the arm will touch other objects within the working range.

3) Spherical coordinate type

The spherical coordinate robot uses a spherical coordinate system. It uses a sliding joint and two rotary joints to determine the position of the component, and then uses an additional rotary joint to determine the pose of the component. The robot can rotate around the central axis. The working range near the central support is large. The two rotating driving devices are easy to seal and cover a large working space. However, the coordinates are complex and difficult to control, and the linear drive device still has the problems of sealing and dead zone.

4) Joint coordinate type/anthropomorphic type

The joints of joint robots are all rotating, similar to human arms, and are the most common structures in industrial robots.

5) Planar joint type

This kind of robot can be regarded as a special case of joint coordinate robot. It has only parallel shoulder joints and elbow joints, and the joint axis is coplanar.


6) The relationship between various coordinate systems of industrial robots is mainly tool coordinate system and workpiece coordinate system.

I will tell you about the various associations between industrial robots with the examples I have actually done in the offline programming industry of industrial robots. I generally use robotmaster to do offline programs,

The specific main steps are as follows: suppose any brand of industrial robot, first use the TCP multi-point correction of the brand to calibrate the tool, and then get the XYZ coordinate(XYZ Arms Robots) value of the tool coordinate. After saving the tool coordinates, let each axis return to the joint zero position, and then immediately measure the coordinates of the workpiece under the rectangular coordinate system by using the tool tip and three-point method, At this time, the user coordinate on the robot system will automatically display the polar coordinate value of the workpiece coordinate. The above display is the XYZ coordinate(XYZ Arms Robots) value between the robot base coordinate and the workpiece coordinate. The parallel angle between the robot base coordinate and the workpiece can even be displayed according to three points. For example, the user coordinate will display the XYZ value and the ABC angle (in parallel), Then robotmaster will calculate the processing range of the current robot for the workpiece according to the user coordinate value. After the calculation, it can be simulated. With the coordinates(XYZ Arms Robots) of the tool, you can convert the robot code of the brand you need. With the above relationship, robotmaster can easily convert the above relationship into a Cartesian coordinate system that is easy to understand and transport it to the code. This code has also been practiced in actual robot processing.